To investigate high yield citric acid producers other than citrus fruits, Aspergillus niger was used for submerged citric acid synthesis. For a comparative investigation of higher yielding substrates, rice and potato extracts were used as substrates. The changes in citric acid output were tracked using different amounts of Sucrose, Glucose, and Nitrogen supplementation. The concentration of citric acid generated was determined by titrating citric acid extracted from various mediums. The objective of the comparison study was to determine the ideal requirements for a greater yield of citric acid production. This research could help with large-scale industrial manufacturing of citric acid, which is one of the most widely used organic acids.
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The goal of this work was to enrich cassava peels in a solid state fermentation with rumen fluid and various nitrogenous sources, as well as to assess the nutritional potential of fermented cassava peels. Fresh cassava peels were washed, sun-dried, crushed, and mixed in airtight polythene bags with various nitrogenous (N) sources (layer-waste, rabbit-waste) at rates of 0, 50, and 100 g/kg. For fermentation periods of 0, 72, and 144 hours, the contents of each polythene bag were sprayed with 250 ml of rumen filtrate and sealed airtight. After that, the fermented samples were sun-dried and examined. The crude protein value of cassava peels grew by 29.6% and 39.8% as the N-source levels climbed from 0 g kg-1 to 50 and 100 g kg-1, respectively, and by 13.5 percent and 18.7% as the fermentation period extended from 0 to 72 and 144 hours, respectively. The crude fibre (CF) value was significantly affected by the level of N-sources (P.001), fermentation period (P.001), and their interactions (P.001), with the CF value decreasing by 22.7 percent and 37.3 percent as the level of N-sources increased from 0 to 50 to 100 g kg-1, respectively, and by 10.4 percent and 11.2 percent as the fermentation period (FP) increased from 0 to 72 hours and 144 hours. As the levels of N-sources and FP increased, the values of HCN and phytate dropped (P.001). While the phy:Zn molar ratio and [Ca][Phy]:[Zn] declined as N-sources and FP levels increased, the Ca:Phy molar ratio increased (P.001) when N-sources and FP levels increased. Ca and Zn bioavailability is supported by Phy:Zn, Ca:phy, and [Ca][Phy]:[Zn] values.
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Vinegar is an acetic acid liquid created by fermentation from a suitable agricultural raw material containing starch or sugars as a carbon source that is also suitable for human consumption. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential of Garcina kola (Bitter Kola) and Artocarpus heterophyllus to produce vinegar (Jack fruit). Bitter kola and jack fruit fermentations were carried out with added inoculant and naturally by indigenous inoculant for seven days at 30oC for alcoholic fermentation and 28 days for acetic fermentation, with some samples being boiled and one group receiving added inoculant while the other did not. A proximate study of the vinegar produced was also performed in order to determine its nutritional quality. The pH of the vinegar ranged from 2.6 to 2.9 for bitter kola, 3.20-3.73 for jackfruit with peel, and pH 3.20-3.40 for jackfruit without peel, according to the findings. Bitter kola has an acetic acid yield of 0.80-2.30 percent, jackfruit with peel has an acetic acid yield of 0.80-1.92 percent, and jackfruit without peel has an acetic acid yield of 0.98-1.92 percent. The alcohol concentration ranged from 0 to 0.5. The specific gravity is between 1.001 and 1.083. Acetobacter sp. is the putative bacteria found in the samples. With 3.49 logcfu/ml, Sample 4A Natural had the highest colony count of Acetic acid bacteria. With 2.45 percent protein, 1.5 percent ash, and 17.3 percent total solids, the jackfruit with peel vinegar had the highest protein, ash, and total solid content. With a moisture percentage of 88.36%, the jackfruit sans peel vinegar had the highest moisture content. In general, the substrates tested, such as bitterkola and jackfruit, have shown to be capable of being used in vinegar production and to include some nutritional properties, albeit further optimization is required to maximise production of vinegar of higher quality.
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Vinegar is the result of bacteria in the Acetobacter genus converting ethyl alcohol to acetic acid. The goal of this study is to see if the vinegar made from bitter kola (Garcina kola) and Jack fruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus) has any antibacterial properties against some clinical isolates. Fermentation with additional inoculants and natural indigenous organisms generated the bitter kola and Jack fruit vinegars. Agar well diffusion was used to assess antimicrobial activity, and the zones of inhibition were quantified in millimetres. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were among the clinical isolates tested. 3B ACV, 1A boiling, 4A natural, and 4A ACV were found to have positive action against E.coli. On S. aureus, only 1A boiled and 4A natural showed action. P. aeruginosa was found to be resistant to 1A cooked and 4B boiled. B. subtilis was positively affected by all of the vinegars tested. In general, the vinegar made from Garcina kola has a higher antimicrobial property than Artocarpusheterophyll usal, though more research is needed to determine the type of antimicrobial activity they have (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and the active ingredients present in the vinegar samples that allow them to have such activities.
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